Thursday, June 30, 2005

Speed up Firefox

Just follow the simple steps and you will discover the noticable changes in Firefox browser. It will become more fast. If you have a broadband, you should do this configure.

  1. Open Firefox browser.
  2. In the address bar type about:config
  3. A long list of configuration settings will be shown
  4. Find the Filter bar below the address bar area
Now use the following filters one by one and set it's values...

  1. network.http.pipelining
  2. network.http.pipelining.firstrequest
  3. network.http.pipelining.maxrequests
  4. network.http.proxy.pipelining
  5. nglayout.ititialpaint.delay

Set #1, #2 and #4 to True. Set #3 to 32. Set #5 to 0 (zero)

If you find any problem during finding out any of the filters, just right click anywhere over the white space of the browser, and select New. Then enter the filter, and then set its value (#1, #2 and #3 are Boolean filters and #4, #5 are intiger filters).

Wednesday, June 29, 2005

Complete Linux Commands List

Complete Linux Commands List

The following is a complete list of all Linux Commands and their descriptions from the Universal Command Guide for Operating Systems. The Universal Command Guide for Operating Systems also includes all of the command options, switches and parameters as well as real world examples that demonstrate how to use the commands. We also give you tips and notes on how to use the commands and when. You will not find even one command missing from this list. We literally scanned the entire file system and included absolutely every executable file and script we found.

If you can find even one command that is not included please email me immediately at Missing Command. In the event that a command is missing from this list and out of the Universal Command Guide for Operating Systems, it must not have been included in the base distribution of the operating system. The command must have come from an additional software package or from another version of the operating system. [Get the list of commands]

This is the complete list of all Linux Commands from Redhat 7.0

Linux Command Summary

Dual Boot Linux and Windows 2000/Windows XP

  • Your machine already has Windows installed, and you are installing Linux as a second operating system, and
  • You want to leave the Windows boot loader (NTLDR) on the MBR (Master Boot Record). This allows you to continue to boot Windows with no issues. I've heard that Windows 2000/Windows XP or anti-virus software may complain if the MBR does not contain the Windows boot loader [Read More]

Monday, June 27, 2005

rpm : The Red Hat Package Manager tool


RPM is a Package Manager, which can be used to build, install, query,
verify, update, & erase individual software packages.

A package consists of an archive of files and meta-data used to
install & erase the archive files. The meta-data includes helper
scripts, file attributes, & descriptive information about the package.

Packages come in two varieties: binary packages, used to encapsulate
software to be installed, & source packages, containing the source
code & recipe necessary to produce binary packages.


$ rpm -qa -- List all installed RPMs.

$ rpm -qf /usr/bin/gcc -- Show which package installed this file.

$ rpm -qi -filesbypkg gcc-3.2.2-5 -- Show the information and list of
files from this package

$ rpm -qR gcc-3.2.2-5 -- Show the dependency of this package.

$ rpm -q gcc --qf "%-30{NAME} %10{SIZE} %{DISTRIBUTION}\n" -- Show
selected info tags of the package installed gcc.

$ rpm --querytags -- Show all supported TAGs.

$ rpm -ivh new.rpm -- Install the new RPM. (v - Verbose, h- Show
Progress bar).

$ rpm -U latest.rpm -- Update an Installed RPM.

$ rpm -F latest.rpm -- Freshen (Update only if installed).

$ rpm -e Package-Name -- Remove a package.

Read: man rpm

Speeding up Linux Using hdparm by Rob Flickenger

Are you running an Intel Linux system with at least one (E)IDE hard drive?

Wouldn't it be neat if there were a magical command to instantly double the I/O performance of your disks? Or, in some cases, show 6 to 10 times your existing throughput?

Did you ever just wonder how to tell what kind of performance you're getting on your "tricked-out" Linux box?

Don't overlook hdparm(8). If you've never heard of it, don't worry. Most people I've talked to haven't either. But if you're running an IDE/Linux system (as many folks are,) you'll wonder how you ever got this far without it. I know I did.

What's the big deal?

So, you've got your brand-new UltraATA/66 EIDE drive with a screaming brand-new controller chipset that supports multiple PIO modes and DMA and the leather seat option and extra chrome... But is your system actually taking advantage of these snazzy features? The hdparm(8) command will not only tell you how your drives are performing, but will let you tweak them out to your heart's content.

Now before you get too excited, it is worth pointing out that under some circumstances, these commands CAN CAUSE UNEXPECTED DATA CORRUPTION! Use them at your own risk! At the very least, back up your box and bring it down to single-user mode before proceeding.

With the usual disclaimer out of the way, I'd like to point out that if you are using current hardware (i.e. your drive AND controller AND motherboard were manufactured in the last two or three years), you are at considerably lower risk. I've used these commands on several boxes with various hardware configurations, and the worst I've seen happen is the occasional hang, with no data problems on reboot. And no matter how much you might whine at me and the world in general for your personal misfortune, we all know who is ultimately responsible for the well-being of YOUR box: YOU ARE. Caveat Fair Reader.

Now, then. If I haven't scared you away yet, try this (as root, preferably in single-user mode):

hdparm -Tt /dev/hda

You'll see something like:

Timing buffer-cache reads: 128 MB in 1.34 seconds =95.52 MB/sec
Timing buffered disk reads: 64 MB in 17.86 seconds = 3.58 MB/sec

What does this tell us? The -T means to test the cache system (i.e., the memory, CPU, and buffer cache). The -t means to report stats on the disk in question, reading data not in the cache. The two together, run a couple of times in a row in single-user mode, will give you an idea of the performance of your disk I/O system. (These are actual numbers from a PII/350 / 128M Ram / newish EIDE HD; your numbers will vary.)

But even with varying numbers, 3.58 MB/sec is PATHETIC for the above hardware. I thought the ad for the HD said something about 66MB per second!!?!? What gives?

Well, let's find out more about how Linux is addressing your drive:

hdparm /dev/hda

multcount = 0 (off)
I/O support = 0 (default 16-bit)
unmaskirq = 0 (off)
using_dma = 0 (off)
keepsettings = 0 (off)
nowerr = 0 (off)
readonly = 0 (off)
readahead = 8 (on)
geometry = 1870/255/63, sectors = 30043440, start = 0

These are the defaults. Nice, safe, but not necessarily optimal. What's all this about 16-bit mode? I thought that went out with the 386! And why are most of the other options turned off?

Well, it's generally considered a good idea for any self-respecting distribution to install itself in the kewlest, slickest, but SAFEST way it possibly can. The above settings are virtually guaranteed to work on any hardware you might throw at it. But since we know we're throwing something more than a dusty, 8-year-old, 16-bit multi-IO card at it, let's talk about the interesting options:

  • multcount: Short for multiple sector count. This controls how many sectors are fetched from the disk in a single I/O interrupt. Almost all modern IDE drives support this. The man page claims:

    When this feature is enabled, it typically reduces operating system overhead for disk I/O by 30-50%. On many systems, it also provides increased data throughput of anywhere from 5% to 50%.
  • I/O support: This is a big one. This flag controls how data is passed from the PCI bus to the controller. Almost all modern controller chipsets support mode 3, or 32-bit mode w/sync. Some even support 32-bit async. Turning this on will almost certainly double your throughput (see below.)

  • unmaskirq: Turning this on will allow Linux to unmask other interrupts while processing a disk interrupt. What does that mean? It lets Linux attend to other interrupt-related tasks (i.e., network traffic) while waiting for your disk to return with the data it asked for. It should improve overall system response time, but be warned: Not all hardware configurations will be able to handle it. See the manpage.

  • using_dma: DMA can be a tricky business. If you can get your controller and drive using a DMA mode, do it. But I have seen more than one machine hang while playing with this option. Again, see the manpage (and the example on the next page)!


So, since we have our system in single-user mode like a good little admin, let's try out some turbo settings:

hdparm -c3 -m16 /dev/hda

setting 32-bit I/O support flag to 3
setting multcount to 16
multcount = 16 (on)
I/O support = 3 (32-bit w/sync)

Great! 32-bit sounds nice. And some multi-reads might work. Let's re-run the benchmark:

hdparm -tT /dev/hda

Timing buffer-cache reads: 128 MB in 1.41 seconds =90.78 MB/sec
Timing buffered disk reads: 64 MB in 9.84 seconds = 6.50 MB/sec

WOW! Almost double the disk throughput without really trying! Incredible.

But wait, there's more: We're still not unmasking interrupts, using DMA, or even a using decent PIO mode! Of course, enabling these gets riskier. (Why is it always a trade-off between freedom and security?) The man page mentions trying Multiword DMA mode2, so:

hdparm -X34 -d1 -u1 /dev/hda

...Unfortunately this seems to be unsupported on this particular box (it hung like an NT box running a Java app.) So, after rebooting it (again in single-user mode), I went with this:

hdparm -X66 -d1 -u1 -m16 -c3 /dev/hda

setting 32-bit I/O support flag to 3
setting multcount to 16
setting unmaskirq to 1 (on)
setting using_dma to 1 (on)
setting xfermode to 66 (UltraDMA mode2)
multcount = 16 (on)
I/O support = 3 (32-bit w/sync)
unmaskirq = 1 (on)
using_dma = 1 (on)

And then checked:

hdparm -tT /dev/hda

Timing buffer-cache reads: 128 MB in 1.43 seconds =89.51 MB/sec
Timing buffered disk reads: 64 MB in 3.18 seconds =20.13 MB/sec

20.13 MB/sec. A far cry from the miniscule 3.58 we started with...

By the way, notice how we specified the -m16 and -c3 switch again? That's because it doesn't remember your hdparm settings between reboots. Be sure to add the above line (not the test line with -tT flags!) to your /etc/rc.d/* scripts once you're sure the system is stable (and preferably after your fsck runs; having an extensive fs check run with your controller in a flaky mode may be a good way to generate vast quantities of entropy, but it's no way to administer a system. At least not with a straight face...)

Now, after running the benchmark a few more times, reboot in multi-user mode and fire up X. Load Netscape. And try not to fall out of your chair.

In conclusion

This is one of those interesting little tidbits that escapes many "seasoned" Linux veterans, especially since one never sees any indication that the system isn't using the most optimal settings. (Gee, all my kernel messages have looked fine....) And using hdparm isn't completely without risk, but is well worth investigating.

And it doesn't stop at performance: hdparm lets you adjust various power saving modes as well. See the hdparm(8) for the final word.

Many thanks to Mark Lord for putting together this nifty utility. If your particular distribution doesn't include hdparm (usually in /sbin or /usr/sbin), get it from the source at

Happy hacking!

lspci : List all PCI device information

lspci (LSPCI) -- List all PCI device information.


lspci is a utility for displaying information about all PCI buses in
the system and all devices connected to them.


$ lspci -- List all PCI device details in short form.

$ lspci -v -- List all PCI device details in long form.

$ lspci -vv -- List all PCI device details in very verbose form.

$ lspci -vb -- Show PCI device connection in Tree form.

$ lspci -n -- Show details in raw form like vendor & device code.

$ lscpi -d 8086: -- Show only Intel's PCI devices.

$ lspci -m -- Show the details in more readable form.

$ lspci -x -- Show initial PCI configuration details in HEX.

# lspci -xxx -- Show whole PCI configuration details in HEX.

Read: man lspci

GNU/Linux FAQ by Richard Stallman

When people see that we use and recommend the name GNU/Linux for a system that many others call just "Linux", they ask many questions. Here are common questions, and our answers. [Read the FAQ]

Install two Linux Distros on the same computer

I have to install Windows ME, Fedora Core 3 and SuSe 9.1. How do I proceed?

Solution :

Before install take a deep breath on how to arrange spaces for installing three distors? I have used as under...

I have a 40 GB Hard Disk and I have made the following partitions...

1) 5 GB FAT 32 (C:)
2) 5 GB FAT 32 (D:)
3) 10 GB EXT3 (For SuSe 9.1)
4) 10 GB EXT3 (For Fedora 3)
5) 512 MB SWAP (Thumbrule for setting up the size of SWAP = 2 * RAM present in your computer)
6) Rest kept free (to be used according to need)

In the above I used the first 5 GB FAT for installing Win ME. The second 5 GB FAT for storage of Win data files. The first 10 GB EXT3 for SuSe 9.1 and second 10 GB EXT3 for Fedora Core 3. The 512 MB swap is for common SWAP place.

STEP 1 :

Install Windows ME

STEP 2 :

Install SuSe 9.1

STEP 3 :

Install Fedora Core 3.
Hope up to this point you will face no problem.

STEP 4 :

After installing Fedora you will find that your SuSe vanished from GRUB boot loader but you will find Windows if you carefully configure your GRUB during installation of Fedora Core 3. During configuring GRUB at the time of Fedora Core 3 Installation, you will find an option to include other operating systems and your Fedora Core 3 can recognize your Windows ME as DOS and you should include it so that it can be found in your GRUB boot loader.

The main thing is to add another GNU/Linux OS, such as SuSe 9.1 in our case.

STEP 5 :

After installation of Fedora Core 3. You should check whether your Windows is working well or not. I am not going to discuss about Windows installation or any fault from Windows part. It is given in the example as to show that GRUB can well recognize Windows as well. You should contact any Windows forum or Microsoft for any help if your Windows fails to start. They should help you.

Boot from Fedora Core 3 and log in as root.

SETP 6 :

Here are the main things to be done carefully for accessing your SuSe. Always keep in mind that you are under FC 3. So, any / or /boot etc. will indicate Fedora's / or Fedora's /boot.

[root@localhost ~]# mkdir /mnt/suse

The above directory made to mount SuSe on that point.

[root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/hda6 /mnt/suse
We have just mounted SuSe to the mentioned mount point. You should put the exact drive name (hda6 in our case) in the above.

[root@localhost ~]# cd /mnt/suse
[root@localhost ~]# ls
You should see the various directories under SuSe.

[root@localhost ~]# cd boot
[root@localhost boot]#
You are now on SuSe's /boot directory. Now copy the following three files


and paste those to Fedora's /boot. The commands to do this may be as follows,
[root@localhost boot]# cp vmlinuz-2.6.* /boot
[root@localhost boot]# cp initrd-2.6.* /boot
[root@localhost boot]# cp* /boot

NB : If you use Slackware, you will not find rather you will find a boot image file whose extension is .img (the file name something similar to You should copy that file instead of

Now, open the file /etc/grub.conf using your favorite text editor.

[root@localhost boot]# vi /etc/grub.conf

Add the following three lines at the end of the file...
title SuSe Linux 9.1 (2.6.x.x)
root (hd0,5)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz- root=/dev/hda6 ro

You have finished editing the file.

The first line tells about the title which will appear in our GRUB boot loader window. This is a string. After typing title you can provide any string which will appear in your GRUB's window.

The second line tells the GRUB that where your root is located. If your / of SuSe is located under partition hda6 you should write the above. The following example will clear you how to modify the string according to your need if your / of SuSe is other than hda6.

for hda6= (hd0,5)
for hda5= (hd0,4)
for hda7= (hd0,6)
for hdb6= (hd1,5)
for hdb5= (hd1,4)
for hdb7= (hd1,6)

Hope this is sufficient to clear the thing.

The third line indicates where to find the kernel and kernel status.

Now save the file. Reboot and have done the job.

You will find your second Linux Distro in the GRUB and you can now run any of your Linux Distro from your computer.

Setting up KMail client with GMail

To set up KMail clinet with GMail follow the instructions :

Settings -->Configure KMail

Configure KMail is devided into six sections. Look at the left; from top to bottom find six tabs as Identities, Network, Appearance, Composer, Security, Misc.

We only use two sections.........Identities and Network to complete the work.

Click Identities....then click New to create a new Identity or Modify to modify the existing identity. Now click on the General Tab...

Your Name : Your Name
Organization : Your organization or keep it blank
E Mail address : learner.linux(at)

Now, click on the Network section from left section. Click on the Sending tab to configure with your SMTP server. Click Add to add a new entry or Modify to modify an existing entry.

Now click on the General Tab.

Name : Your Name
Host :
Port : 465
Check on the Server Requires Authentication
Login : your complete e-mail address (learner.linux(at)
Password : Your login password to e-mail
Check Store SMTP password in configuration file.

Now click on the Security Tab

Encription : SSL
Authentication Method : Login

Click OK to save the settings under Sending tab. Now click on the Receiving tab. Click Add or Modify as per your requirement. Click on General Tab.

Name : Your Name
Login : your complete e-mail address (learner.linux(AT)
Password: your password
Port: 995
Check Store POP password in configuration file.
You may check Enable interval mail checking and fix the time. I have set it at 10 which means after every 10 minutes, my mail box will be checked by my KMail.

Now click on the Extras tab.

Encription : Use SSL for secure mail download
Authentication Method : Clear text

Now, click on OK to save the settings under Receiving tab.

Click on OK again to save the whole configuration of KMail configuration.

You have finished your job. Now relax...

Saturday, June 25, 2005

Slackware Linux Essentials

This is a wonderful book for beginners of linux mainly Slackware users.

The book is written by :
Alan Hicks
Chris Lumens
David Cantrell
Logan Jhonson

adduser : How to add an user

You may sometime need to add an user account. If you use Slackware, then you must have to add an user account after logging in as root. This step by step exercise will let you explain how to add an user.

Follow this link...

Customizing the splash image in GRUB

The splash image is the image shown in the background when GRUB (the GRand Unified Bootloader) is displaying the list of operating systems you can boot. Typically, this is the corporate logo of your Linux distribution. But its very simple to customize it to an image of your choice. All you need is the GIMP and gzip. My GIMP version is 1.2. Even older versions may do the job.

Here's how:(You need to have root access)
1)Start the GIMP.
2)Click on File->New or type Ctrl+N
3)In the new image dialog, change Width to 640 pixels and Height to 480 pixels. (The image should be of size 640x480 pixels.) Now click OK.
4)Create the image which you would like to be the splash image. It's quite fun to experiment with the various tools of the GIMP!
5)After you have finished creating the image, hit Alt+i or right click on the image and click on Image->Mode->Indexed...
6)In the Indexed Color Conversion dialog that appears, click on the radio button "Generate optimal Palette" and in "# of colors" enter 14. Click OK.(The image should be of only 14 colors)
7)Now right-click on the image and click on File->Save As...Save the file as splash.xpm in a directory of your choice.
8)Now open a terminal window and navigate to the directory where you have saved splash.xpm
9)Now key in gzip splash.xpm
10)You will find that a file named splash.xpm.gz is created in the directory where splash.xpm used to exist.
11)Copy this splash.xpm.gz to the /boot/grub directory. You may want to back up the pre-existing splash.xpm.gz file in the /boot/grub directory first.

That's it! When you reboot, you will find your image in the background, with the menu of operating systems etc. in the foreground.

Of course, this is not the only way to change the image, but it is a very simple one.

Reference :

Mouse is not scrolling on Slackware 10.1

It is a very common problem. Edit the file /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Find the section where your input device is configured...
There are a lot of lines which are commented out with # but you should look for the following lines which should not be commented out
Identifier "Mouse1"
Driver "mouse"
Option "Protocol" "PS/2"
Option "Device" "/dev/mouse"
// Most probably the above lines are there, now add the following line, always remember to add this line after Option "Device" "device/path"...
Option "ZAxixMapping" "4 5"
Now it will start scrolling

Eject command is not working, message : 'Unable to open /dev/hdd'

This is caused due to permission set to your /dev/hdd. Give necessary permission to your /dev/hdd and it will work.

bash-3.00$ eject /dev/hdd
eject: unable to open `/dev/hdd'

bash-3.00$ ls -l /dev/hdd
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 22, 64 2002-06-09 23:27 /dev/hdd

// you have to provide a permission to read+write to all. To do so, log in as root

bash-3.00$ su

bash-3.00# chmod a+rw /dev/hdd

//you have done the necessary change, now check that, whether it is ok or not ...

bash-3.00# ls -l /dev/hdd
brw-rw-rw- 1 root disk 22, 64 2002-06-09 23:27 /dev/hdd

//now give your eject command again
bash-3.00# eject /dev/hdd

It is not working? So, have fun...

Connect R-Connect (Reliance) from your Linux Box

There are many of us who find it difficult to connect to the intyernet with their Reliance ISP using Reliance Mobile or Fixed Wireless Telephone (FWP). A few months back I also found a There are many of us who find it difficult to connect to the internet to their Reliance ISP using Reliance Mobile or Fixed Wireless Telephone (FWP). A few months back I was also stuck in a similar problem but I can now easily connect using my Reliance Fixed Wireless Telephone. Several members have also been benefited using tips from mine and a lot of them requested me to publish a step by step guide to communicate internet using their Reliance Telephone. This made me enthusiastic to write this material. This is a complete guide for Reliance but can also be a guide for Tata and Airtel Mobile and FWP devices also. I used a Reliance FWP with LG LSP 340E base phone set.

Step 1

Connect your telephone to the ttyS1 port. ttyS1 is the same port as COM2 port (we use the term COM2 in Windows). If you use COM1 port then replace all ttyS1 (where you will find in this guide) with ttyS0.
[ COM(x)=ttyS(x-1) ]

Step 2

If you are able to communicate internet through Windows then there is no problem with it you can proceed to the next step or if there is a need to test your modem, you should produce the following command as root.

[root@localhost user]# wvdialconf /etc/wvdial.conf

Scanning your serial ports for a modem.

ttyS0: ATQ0 V1 E1 -- failed with 2400 baud, next try: 9600 baud

ttyS0: ATQ0 V1 E1 -- failed with 9600 baud, next try: 115200 baud

ttyS0: ATQ0 V1 E1 -- and failed too at 115200, giving up.

ttyS1: ATQ0 V1 E1 -- failed with 2400 baud, next try: 9600 baud

ttyS1: ATQ0 V1 E1 -- OK

ttyS1: ATQ0 V1 E1 Z -- OK

ttyS1: ATQ0 V1 E1 S0=0 -- OK

ttyS1: ATQ0 V1 E1 S0=0 &C1 -- OK

ttyS1: ATQ0 V1 E1 S0=0 &C1 &D2 -- OK

ttyS1: ATQ0 V1 E1 S0=0 &C1 &D2 +FCLASS=0 -- OK

ttyS1: Modem Identifier: ATI -- 115200

ttyS1: Max speed is 115200; that should be safe.

ttyS1: ATQ0 V1 E1 S0=0 &C1 &D2 +FCLASS=0 -- OK

Port Scan: S3 S4 S5 S6 S7

Found a modem on /dev/ttyS1.

Modem configuration written to /etc/wvdial.conf.

ttyS1: Speed 115200; init "ATQ0 V1 E1 S0=0 &C1 &D2 +FCLASS=0"

If everything is alright you should get similar result. A modem configuration is also be written to \'/etc/wvdial.conf\' with this but as it is not accurate with our need we will slightly change according to our need.

Note : It may happen that you have to provide the command in three/four times to communicate. So don\'t give up unless you have tried the command for three four times. In this time you must be communicated. If not please check your connection.

Step 3

Do not configure the KPPP unless you understand what you are doing. If you write a configuration file yourself, it is much easier to find the problem in future. I am configuring the file by editing it. If you still want to use KPPP you are encouraged to do it using these parameters. Advanced Connection Settings --> Extra Settings string value and put it as the init2 string value]

Step 4

Now you are almost at the last stage to connect to internet. Give the following command as root.

[root@localhost user]# wvdial reliance

(If you see that you access is denied then give access to the file /etc/wvdial.conf to execute the command using chmod.)

[root@localhost user]# chmod a+x /etc/wvdial.conf

and after that you give the following command again
[root@localhost user]# wvdial reliance

You may not be connected at the first time you have given the command. You may repeat three four times to connect but you will succeed at last. When you will get the connection, you can see the IP Addresses of your Primary and Secondary DNS servers. Note it down. Now disconnect, or you may test some pings and see what happens. You have to disconnect using Ctrl+C.

Edit the file /etc/wvdial.confusing your favourite editor. Erase the lines which were written by your computer at the previous step. Write down the following codes there.




Dial Command = ATDT



Flow Control= Hardware (CRTSCTS)

[Dialer reliance]

Username = YourUserName

Password = YourPassword

Phone = #777

Stupid Mode = 1

Inherits= Modem0

Save the file and exit from the editor.
[ You should log on to Windows and note down the Modem --> Advanced Connection Settings --> Extra Settings string value and put it as the init2 string value]

Step 4

Now you are almost at the last stage to connect to internet. Give the following command as root.

[root@localhost user]# wvdial reliance

(If you see that you access is denied then give access to the file /etc/wvdial.conf to execute the command using chmod.)

[root@localhost user]# chmod a+x /etc/wvdial.conf

and after that you give the following command again
[root@localhost user]# wvdial reliance

You may not be connected at the first time you have given the command. You may repeat three four times to connect but you will succeed at last. When you will get the connection, you can see the IP Addresses of your Primary and Secondary DNS servers. Note it down. Now disconnect, or you may test some pings and see what happens. You have to disconnect using Ctrl+C.

Step 5

Edit the tile '/etc/resolv.conf' file with your favourite editor and write down the IP Addresses you have obtained followed by the word nameserver.

nameserver [IP Address of Primary DNS Server]

nameserver [IP Address of Secondary DNS Server]

You have finished all your job and now ease back on your chair and give the command,

[root@localhost user]# wvdial reliance

Always remember that you have to be root to use the above command. When you will see IP addresses of your Primary and Secondary DNS Servers, you have been connected to internt.

Remember to disconnect using Ctrl+C

Whats more? Enjoy..... and give feedback

Connect DIAS (BSNL) from your Linux box

This article explains about the configuration of DIAS internet connection. DIAS is a type of internet connection offered by BSNL. It is offered only in selected cities. For more details about DIAS connection click here.

We need a package named rp-pppoe for configuring this internet connection in *nix based machines. This package can be downloaded from this site.

Now the following steps need to be followed:

1-> Switch to root using 'su' command
2-> Use the 'rpm' command to install the rp-pppoe rpm
3-> After installing it , just do a cd to /usr/sbin
4-> Now we are in the directory /usr/sbin
5-> Now execute the script 'adsl-setup'
6-> You will be prompted to enter the following
  • User name
  • Password
  • Ethernet card number [Eth0, Eth1... etc.. based on your pc configuration]
  • DNS Address
    • Primary Address -
    • Secondary Address -
  • Firewall setup [Enter 0 or 1 or 2] based on the pc requirements
  • Finally we are asked to confirm the changes that we made
7-> After completing this step, start the net connection by executing the following script 'adsl-start' and the connection can be terminated by using 'adsl-stop' script.

Hope this article is useful for those who are meddling up with their DIAS internet connection. Note that BSNL provides a modem [external] for this type of internet connection.

Unable to unmount drives due to "Drive is busy status" ?

Unable to unmount drives due to "Drive is busy status" ?

look if you have any open workspace on the drive location
then run

fuser -k /path/where/the/drive/is/mounted
fuser -k /device (for ex. fuser -k /dev/cdrom)

then proceed as normal umounting procedure

This is usefull for CDroms which are sometimes stuck on some job and fail to unmount

lsdev - Display information about installed hardware

lsdev gathers information about your computer's installed hardware
from the interrupts, ioports and dma files in the /proc directory,
thus giving you a quick overview of which hardware uses what I/O
addresses and what IRQ and DMA channels.

This program only shows the kernel's idea of what hardware is present,
not what's actually physically available :-)


$ lsdev

Read: man lsdev